Vitamin A- Something Between Too Little And Too Much


Vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin and assumes its critical role in vision, maintenance and development of healthy and younger looking skin, hair, reproduction, immunity, and mucous membranes.

Vitamin A is additionally called retinol. It might be found in any of the following forms:

  • Retinol: it is the animal form of this A vitamin
  • Different retinoids: retinoic acid, retinol, retinal, and other similar compounds
  • Carotenoids: natural colors that are normally happening in plants.

Vitamin A: daily requirement

Unit of measurement of vitamin A is RAE (Retinol Activity Equivalent). The suggested every day prerequisite for vitamin An is 700 RAE (retinol action proportional) every day for ladies and 900 RAE every day for men.

The prerequisites are varied for developing kids, during adolescence, and for ladies who are pregnant or lactating. So, it is advisable to counsel your specialist for appropriate and suggested the intake of vitamin A.

Great sources of vitamin A

Eating food that is rich in vitamin A (and carotenes) is the most ideal approach to get an adequate amount. Fit people who have a balanced eating regimen hardly require supplements. Truth be told, an excess of vitamin A can be poisonous too.

Liquor, espresso, or too much iron would all be able to drain the body’s supply of this basic vitamin. However, fortunately, vitamin A is promptly accessible from various food. Main vitamin A rich foods are:

  • Liver
  • Mango
  • Spinach
  • Cheese
  • Melon
  • Sweet potato
  • Carrots
  • Dried apricots
  • Egg yolk

Vitamin A that is obtained from animal sources can be efficiently ingested and utilized effectively by the body.

Alarming fact about vitamin A

Vitamin A can likewise produce toxicity. An excessive amount of vitamin A has been connected to expanded hazard for lung disease and birth disorders, for instance. However, before you get anxious, just go towards a simple solution to avoid any inconvenience.

Most of the whole grains and foods don’t contain vitamin A, yet beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is likewise called pre-vitamin A. Your body changes over beta-carotene into vitamin A. Beta-carotene from whole grain sources are protected.

Your body precisely limits the measure of Vitamin A you get by regulating the measure of beta-carotene it changes over into vitamin A. So, in case if you eat more beta-carotene than your body can utilize, your body just disposes of the additional.

Conversely, the vitamin A found in supplements gets put away in your fat where it can develop to undesirable levels.

What does happen if vitamin A is taken excessively?

As per some researches, having more than a normal of 1.5mg every day of vitamin A over numerous years may influence bones and make them more inclined to fractures when aged.

Aged individuals, especially ladies, are as of now in danger of osteoporosis. This is the point where the density of bone decreases thus the danger of fractures increase.

In case if you are pregnant, having a lot of vitamin A can hurt your unborn child. Thus, therefore if you are expecting or considering having a child, you ought to avoid eating liver or similar foods on the grounds that these are high in vitamin A.

You ought to likewise abstain from taking supplements that contain vitamin A. In case you have been taking a lot of vitamin A and figure you might have vitamin A cerebral pains, quit taking all vitamins supplements immediately.

Consult your specialist to be checked for any damage to organs. Drink a lot of water to help flush your accumulated toxins and poisons. You may cure your cerebral pain with over the counter pain killers as long as your specialist says it is alright.

After some time, the side effects will vanish once you stop the intake of it. At the point when all the abundance vitamin A is gone from your body, your vitamin A migraines should stop too.

Unfortunately, if there has been any liver harm from the vitamin A, consult your doctor to avoid further damage.

Dangers associated with insufficiency of vitamin A

  • Zinc is required to make RBP (retinol binding protein) which transports vitamin A in the body. Like this, a lack of zinc confines the body’s capacity to move vitamin A from the liver to body tissues.
  • Night blindness is one of the principal indications of deficiency of vitamin A.
  • Deficiency of vitamin A also lessens the capacity to battle diseases, for example, pneumonia.
  • Deficiency may build a youngster’s danger of creating respiratory diseases, improper growth, moderate bone development, diarrhea and also reduce the probability of survival from severe diseases.

Vegetarians who don’t eat eggs and dairy products require provitamin A carotenoids to address their issue for vitamin A. They ought to incorporate at least five servings of fresh veggies and fruits.

Pick dull green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow organic products to satisfy prescribed measures of vitamin A.


  • Vitamin A is necessary for bright and good vision

In case if you don’t get enough vitamin A in your eating routine, you won’t have the capacity to make the proteins basic for vision. Therefore, vitamin A insufficiency can prompt vision issues. Actually, overall vitamin A insufficiency is one of the main sources of visual impairment.

  • Vitamin A is key for the strength of immune system

Without vitamin A, your immunity won’t be strong enough. Indeed, even children who are mildly deficient in vitamin A become a substantially higher danger of respiratory infections and looseness of the bowels.

First of all, vitamin A appears to enable our white platelets to differentiate. These cells pick up the rank of detectives and bodyguard thanks to some degree to vitamin A.

Subsequently; you can have a more advanced interior protection force. Besides, your body creates an extraordinary molecule with vitamin A that tells these same white platelets and other cells of immunity to get dynamic.

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Wondering how to keep your furry pal healthy?


Getting yourself to the gym can be a significant challenge. It’s even tougher when you can’t drive, you lack opposable thumbs, and your primary skills are “Sit” and “Stay.”

Yes: Dogs need to focus on their fitness, too. And like any good workout partner, they depend on their fellow friends to keep them in shape.

For a primer on keeping your dog healthy, we talked to Ernie Ward, D.V.M., a veterinarian and founder of the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention. Ward is also the creator of K9 Fit Club, where personal trainers, dog trainers, and dog owners can take classes to exercise with their dogs. (They have over 46 locations around the country. You can check out other dog fitness centers near you.)

Ward walked me through the best exercises you can do to get your dog moving, and the exercises you should probably avoid. Here are a few workout scenarios for different types of canines.

When your dog thinks kettlebells are toys

Kettlebell swings make for a great at-home workout, until your 10-month old Labrador-mix puppy (like mine) decides to jump up and get involved.

“I’m kind of anti-kettlebells-around-dogs,” Ward says. “It’s critical to evaluate [how dangerous the exercise you’re doing] could be to your dog when you’re doing swift movements or you’re moving weight. Sometimes you can’t overcome that movement instantly—like the arc of a kettlebell swing—and if your dog is in the same room, you could injure them,” he said.

Before you start any exercise or activity, take a step back and ask yourself: What are the potential risks here for my dog or myself?

“We do lunges in K9 classes, but we actually have the dog under restraint when we’re doing big movements, because your dog may dash underneath you—then everybody gets injured.”

If you’re exercising near your dog, keep them on a leash. Knowing how your dog reacts will help you determine what exercises you can do while they’re around.

When your dog loves to tackle you (especially during planks and crunches)

Plenty of pet owners have found they can do workouts with their dogs out of their crates. But when I get on the floor to do planks or abs routines on a mat, my dog thinks this is the perfect opportunity to jump on me or barrage me with licks.

If you have a calmer dog that can lie nearby and chew a bone or relax while you’re on the floor, go ahead with one of our core routines. Otherwise, doing floor work may lead to injury—or, at the very least, a lackluster abs workout.

When your large dog gained weight and you’d like to help him shed the pounds

Veterinarians often see “spring-training injuries” in dogs that hibernated all winter, then started running again, Ward says. If your dog spent all winter on the couch, then they “aren’t ready to spring forward and play Frisbee, do agility exercises, or even swim.”

So, as with any new workout routine, ease yourself and your dog back into action.

“We see a lot of knee ligament tears in the spring from deconditioned dogs who have put on a few extra pounds or just lost muscle and strength,” Ward says. “Sometimes it’s a trauma injury where the dog falls off because their agility isn’t there. They’re just out of practice, so be aware this “spring-training” scenario is real for dogs…as well as people.”

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Beetroot juice supplements may help certain heart failure patients


Beetroot juice supplements may help certain heart failure patients by enhancing their exercise capacity, according to a study. Exercise capacity is a key factor linked to these patients’ quality of life and even survival. The study examined the impact of dietary nitrate in the form of beetroot juice supplements on the exercise capacity of eight heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction, a condition in which the heart muscle doesn’t contract effectively and can’t get enough oxygen-rich blood to the body. Tens of millions of people suffer from heart failure. In about half of all such people, the ejection fraction of the heart is reduced. Because of their condition, these patients exhibit labored breathing, have diminished peak oxygen uptake and use more energy while exercising than would otherwise be the case.

Researchers found that the beetroot supplement resulted in significant increases in exercise duration, peak power and peak oxygen uptake while exercising. Those improvements were not accompanied by any changes in the breathing responses of the patients, and there was no change in their exercise efficiency, a measure of how much external work a person gets for a certain input of energy.

“Abnormalities in aerobic exercise responses play a major role in the disability, loss of independence and reduced quality of life that accompany heart failure,” said Andrew Coggan, an associate professor in the Department of Kinesiology in the School of Physical Education and Tourism Management at IUPUI and one of the researchers who conducted the study.

“Perhaps more importantly, elevations in ventilatory demand and decreases in peak oxygen uptake are highly predictive of mortality in patients with heart failure.”

A second important aspect of the study is there were no untoward side effects from the dietary nitrate, Coggan said: “In this case, lack of any significant changes is good news.”

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Fight The Flu Like An Elite Athlete



Former Alabama runner Katelyn Greenleaf, now a registered dietitian, competes at the 2015 NCAA DI Outdoor Nationals in the 3K steeplechase


It seems like everyone is getting bit by the flu bug lately and athletes are no exception. Former Florida high school distance standout and University of Alabama alumna Katelyn Greenleaf, now a registered dietitian, delves into the best way to fight the flu.

Did anyone else get the flu this season?

The flu can be a real downer, especially if it hits an athlete in the middle of their competitive season. Even though people try to avoid the sickness by washing their hands and disinfecting surfaces, sometimes it is impossible to come out of flu season unaffected. There are a lot of beliefs and theories of how a person can recover quickly from the flu and get back to their school, work, and training schedule, but did you know that nutrition plays a huge role in this process?

I have recently paid my dues with the flu and have made my recovery. Since I am a dietitian, I would love to share some of my nutrition knowledge with the athletes out there who cannot afford to be sick and take multiple days off. By following these tips, you will be happy, healthy, and back on the track before you know it!

Tip #1: Drink plenty of water and electrolytes. Whether you are drinking Gatorade, Powerade Zero, or Zipfizz, it is important to stay hydrated!  Hydration will help your body carry the proper nutrients to the cells in need.

Tip #2: Eat something. I know (from personal experience) the last thing you want to do when sick is to get out of your bed, but it is essential that your body has fuel. Keep it simple and focus on whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. These foods will provide you with vitamins and minerals that will help your body’s immune system.

Tip #3: Sleep and rest. Sleep has been proven to promote faster recovery and healing. Even though you might want to jump back into practice ASAP, you should listen to your body and give yourself time for a full recovery. Even if you can make it back to practice shortly after your run-in with the flu, communicate with your coach and ask if you can ease back into training with some lighter efforts during your next few runs. 

(Pictured is a bowl of Cheerios with a glass of skim milk. This is an excellent source of whole grains and zinc and a perfect low-maintenance snack for when you are feeling under the weather.)

Tip #4: Probiotics have been associated with positive effects on health. In multiple different studies, probiotics were seen to reduce infection compared to those who did not take probiotics. You can find probiotics in supplements or common foods at the grocery store such as yogurts (I especially recommend Greek yogurt for the extra protein benefits).

Tips #5: Zinc can help the immune system work properly. It has been shown in research to significantly decrease the severity of the flu and common colds. Significant sources of zinc include poultry, milk, whole grain products, beans, seeds, and nuts. Zinc supplements have also proven effective.

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The Truth About Skin, Hair, And Nail Supplements



Spoiler alert: Some work while others are a total waste of money.




Can a powder or pill really give you a glowing complexion, strong, shiny strands, or nails that grow quickly and never crack?

Sure, there are plenty of products out there promising to do these very things. And we’ve all seen a celebrity or beauty blogger who swears by her daily collagen smoothie or biotin supplement. But despite the hype, there’s actually not much science backing up the validity of beauty supplement claims.

“Most of us dermatologists just don’t recommend oral supplements to healthy people,” says Sheryl Hoyer, MD, a dermatologist with Northwestern Medicine.

But does that mean all supplements are a waste of your money? Or are there any that might actually be beneficial? Here’s what you need to know about things like biotin, keratin, collagen, and other popular pills, straight from the experts.

​ Do Hair, Skin, And Nails Vitamins Actually Work?

Also known as vitamin B7, biotin plays an important role in helping the body metabolize proteins—which are needed to produce healthy skin, hair, and nail cells. People who are severely deficient often end up with hair loss, eczema, and brittle nails, and supplementing can help correct those problems, explains Melanie Palm, MD assistant clinical professor of dermatology at the University of California-San Diego and founder of The Art of Skin.

But if you already get the recommended 30 mcg of biotin daily, loading up on extra won’t give you a beauty boost, according to a reent review of 18 studies.c And as long as you eat a balanced diet, you’re almost certainly getting your fill. The nutrient is found in eggs, salmon, pork chops, hamburgers, sunflower seeds, sweet potatoes, almonds, broccoli, and spinach.


​ Do Hair, Skin, And Nails Vitamins Actually Work?

Prenatal vitamins

Pregnant women are known for having thick, lustrous hair that grows really fast. But contrary to popular belief, it’s not because they’re taking prenatal vitamins. “It’s more likely the hormones of pregnancy, not the vitamins, that are enhancing hair growth,” says Hoyer.

In fact, there’s zero evidence that prenatals do anything for hair growth—whether you’re pregnant or not, she adds. So unless you’re having a baby (or trying for one) don’t bother buying these.

​ Do Hair, Skin, And Nails Vitamins Actually Work?
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Keratin is the structural protein that makes up the outermost layer of hair, skin, and nails. Our bodies make plenty of it on their own, but beauty buffs often claim that supplementing can make hair stronger and shinier.

Again though, there’s no evidence to back this up. In fact, keratin is highly resistant to the digestive acids in your stomach—so taking a supplement could cause more harm than good. “Cats who regularly groom themselves with their tongues often form hairballs in their intestines that they eventually vomit, because they can’t ingest the keratin in their fur,” Hoyer says. You don’t want to end up like that, do you?

​ Do Hair, Skin, And Nails Vitamins Actually Work?
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Like keratin, collagen is a naturally occurring structural protein that gives skin its smooth, plump appearance. And when production dips with age, wrinkles start to form.

So is supplementing the fountain of youth? One industry-funded study did show that women who took about three tablespoons of a collagen-based product for 60 days experienced less skin dryness and fewer wrinkles. (Independent studies are far and few between.)

But it’s not a surefire solution. “In your gut, collagen [that you consume through food or a supplement] is broken down into amino acids. And it’s at your body’s discretion how those amino acids are used,” Palm says. “It could become proteins to help your blood vessels, repair your liver, or stimulate your brain—not necessarily amino acids to produce collagen.” In other words, collagen might be a beneficial anti-ager, but there’s no guarantee.

​ Do Hair, Skin, And Nails Vitamins Actually Work?
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Vitamin C

It’s an antioxidant—and a potentially potent one at that. Vitamin C has been shown to protect against aging and skin cancers by boosting the production of collagen, preventing collagen from degrading, and fighting the formation of melanin (skin pigmentation), Hoyer says.

The problem? Even at high doses, only a fraction of that vitamin C supplement actually makes its way into your skin. Topical products that contain vitamin C are more effective—but even then, there’s not a ton of evidence to support their use, says Hoyer. “Because of all this, I’m not a big proponent of vitamin C yet. But I don’t think there’s much harm in it.”

​ Do Hair, Skin, And Nails Vitamins Actually Work?
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Here’s the one supplement that might actually do you some legit good. These essential fatty acids provide must-have nutrition for healthy hair and skin cells. “Our skin cell membranes are composed of a cholesterol-derived layer, and omega-3s are needed to help maintain that. In the same way, they help with the integrity of the hair,” Palm says.

In other words, getting your fill just might contribute to a glowier complexion and shinier strands. If you don’t regularly eat fish like salmon and tuna, aim for 500 mg of DHA and EPA (the most potent types of omega-3s, which are found in fatty fish) daily, Palm recommends. Nature Made Fish Oil Pearls will help you hit the daily mark.

​ Do Hair, Skin, And Nails Vitamins Actually Work?
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Link between gut bacteria and brain’s memory function


Can probiotic bacteria play a role in how well your memory works? It’s too early to say for sure, but mouse studies have turned up some clues worth remembering.

Preliminary results suggest that giving mice the kinds of bacteria often found in dietary supplements have a beneficial effect on memory when it comes to navigating mazes or avoiding electrical shocks.

One such study, focusing on mazes and object-in-place recognition, was published last year. And researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Wash., are seeing similarly beneficial effects on memory in preliminary results from their experiments.

PNNL’s Janet Jansson provided an advance look at her team’s yet-to-be-published findings here today at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

The experiments gauged the effects of giving normal mice and germ-free mice a supplement of Lactobacillus bacteria — a type of bacteria that’s already been linked to improved cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

To measure how the presence of the bacteria affected memory, Jansson and her colleagues used a standard memory test that involved giving the mice a foot shock in a darkened part of the chamber, waiting several days, then seeing how well the mice knew to avoid the chamber’s dark place.

“The longer it takes for them to go back, the better memory they have,” Jansson explained.

She said the mice that were given the bacteria showed “much improved memory.”

The PNNL team then focused on the mechanism linking gut bacteria to brain function. The mice with the Lactobacillus boost showed elevated levels of mannitol, a sugar molecule that has some therapeutic applications.

And when the researchers looked at color-coded images of the hippocampus, a brain region that’s associated with memory, they found higher concentrations of GABA, a chemical that previous studies have linked to working-memory capacity.

“We’ve gotten some pieces of the puzzle, but it’s not complete yet,” Jansson said.

Joseph Petrosino, a microbiologist at Baylor College of Medicine, said that the link between Lactobacillus and memory improvement made sense, but that lots of details remain to be filled in.

“Lactobacillus is like the Swiss army knife of the microbiome. … The challenge is that, as with any microbial species, strain-to-strain variation can be as much as 40 percent,” Petrosino told GeekWire. “So not all strains are made equal. We have to understand which strains are doing what.”

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Dentist says salami and butter are key for good teeth


No matter how thoroughly you clean your teeth, you are probably still exposing yourself to tooth decay, according to one dentist speaking out about oral care.

Dr Steven Lin from Australia claims that meticulously brushing and flossing the way your childhood dentist taught you to is not enough to prevent cavities and harmful levels of tooth enamel.

The answer? Your diet, according to Dr Lin. He claims that maintaining good eating habits is the only way to stave off weak, unhealthy teeth.

Dr Lin says that incorporating four crucial vitamins into your diet will do worlds of good for your oral health, and he cautions the hygiene habits you have learned to develop since birth are not sufficient when it comes to caring for your teeth.

Dr Lin is the author of The Dental Diet, which is expected in 2018, and he also blogs about common misconceptions concerning oral health.

‘I’m about to say something that might surprise you. Your toothpaste isn’t that important. In fact, compared to proper dental nutrition, even brushing and flossing aren’t as important,’ Dr Lin says.

He writes that this explains why some people still experience tooth decay even if they follow their dentist’s recommendations.

‘Then there’s people who brush and floss religiously who are confused as to how they keep getting cavities no matter how many toothpaste brands and techniques they try.’

The problem comes down to the nutrients these people are consuming, he says.

Dr Lin boils it down to four vitamins that he claims will save your teeth – A, K2, D and E – and he warns that most people are not getting enough of them by following modern diets.


Without enough vitamin A, your mouth will not produce enough saliva that gets rid of harmful bacteria, Dr Lin says.

He explains: ‘When you aren’t getting enough vitamin A, your saliva glands can’t do their job and it can contribute to pits on the surface of your enamel.’

Vitamin D is essential for strong bones, teeth chief among them. But that is not where vitamin D’s benefits stop, he says.

‘There’s actually a little immune system within your teeth, called your odontoblasts, which needs vitamin D to be activated. Your ordontoblasts are the cells of your teeth that produce dentin and are vital to tooth regeneration,’ he explains.

Dr Lin says that without vitamin K2, taking calcium supplements is useless. ‘Vitamin K2 is like the traffic cop for your calcium, telling it where and when to go,’ he says.

When people with K2 deficiencies take calcium, it goes to their kidneys and arteries instead of their teeth.

Lastly, vitamin E, an antioxidant, makes sure the levels of bacteria in your mouth are under control.

The supplement regulates the microbiome in your mouth, which houses viruses, fungi and bacteria.

Dr Lin says that without these four supplements, your teeth are not being cared for properly.

He writes: ‘I can’t emphasize this enough, you must get the right nutrients, vitamins and minerals so your teeth can continue to regenerate throughout your life.

‘Many mistakenly believe that they can prevent cavities and periodontal disease simply with good brushing habits and the right toothpaste – but this isn’t the most important factor.’ read more