Some lice products work better

Delousing products generally require two treatments about three weeks apart to kill all the lice that hatch out from the eggs that weren’t affected by the first treatment.

“There is one new product that does seem to work if you can only pour cattle once,” according to Dr. Dave Barz, a veterinarian in Parkston, S.D. “It’s called Clean-Up II and contains a pyrethroid, which kills adult lice, plus an insect growth regulator that keeps the nymphs and newly hatched lice from maturing.”

It has enough residual effect to thwart the lice that hatch out after the treatment.

“We’ve been using that for several years and are seeing better results,” he said. “This might be something to try if cattle are continuing to have lice problems after traditional treatments. In our area, if you start to have problems, the company you bought the product from will usually give you more, so you can get them re-poured. That’s been their guarantee, at this point in time.”

Many ranchers in his region pour cattle with an avermectin product at turnout time to kill internal as well as external parasites, and again in the fall at roundup to kill lice.

“Most of these cattle are moved with trucks now, so a lot of them get poured as they come off or get on a truck. Any time you are handling the animals, you can think about using a pour-on,” he says. “We’ve talked about rotating the pour-on products, using different ones different years, but we are seeing lice resistance to all of them. The only one that is really helping us right now in terms of thwarting a new hatch of lice is the Clean-Up II.”

Some feedlots now are using injectable and pour-on products at the same time — a full dose of each — and in those groups of cattle we haven’t seen as much problem with lice recurring.

“Hopefully we are getting a better kill, and maybe more residual effect,” Barz says. “We can’t scientifically explain it, but it seems to help.”

For best control, it’s very important to treat all of the animals at the same time, with a proper dose, and not skip any.

“This is why the treatments work so well in the feedlot, because the whole pen is treated. There are no animals skipped, that would re-infest the treated animals,” he says.

The important thing is to have a good lice control program in terms of when to pour the cattle, and how best to break the life cycle. Lice are a bigger problem when animals are confined and grouped together (in terms of spreading lice to one another) as for winter feeding, calving, etc.

“A few years ago, some ranchers decided to use natural products rather than insecticides,” Barz says. “The old way, before we had insecticides, was to use the back-rubbers with oil on them, so the cows’ hair was oily, which tends to deter the lice. But these are only spot treatments. Also, in every herd it seems like there’s a cow or two that act as carriers; they have heavier infestations and may have lice even after treatment, spreading lice to the other cattle.”

Lice are often a problem on young calves.

“If the cow has lice, some are readily transferred to the calf through direct contact, and the lice population explodes on the calf because it is small and thin-skinned,” Barz says. “If you at them closely, some of the lighter-colored calves will almost be black with lice. This is why controlling lice on cows is important, so they won’t spread lice to their calves. Otherwise we have to pour the calves fairly soon also, to decrease their lice populations.”

Some lice are always there, in any herd of cattle. They multiply most readily on the young, the weak, the old and any thin, sick ones. Any animal that is compromised tends to have more lice.

“If an animal is weak, and parasites are taking blood, that animal is more susceptible to pneumonia, scours and other secondary infections,” Barz says. “This is why lice control is so important — not just because the cattle are scratching/rubbing the fence down. Lice are nibbling away at the potential profit from your herd!”

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A look at horse oral joint supplement ingredients

A look at oral joint supplement ingredients that are backed by science

Supplement in Container

Can you name one of the most common causes of lameness in horses? If you said osteoarthritis (OA), you’re right. As common as it is, OA remains an incurable disease, and once it presents itself in a joint, there’s no going back.

Knowing this might cause you to sprint over to the supplement aisle of your local feed or tack store, only to be met with an overabundance of oral joint supplements, each label touting an ability to prevent or slow OA progression. But, believe it or not, most of these supplements’ ingredients have no scientific backing in horses, with label claims relying on data extrapolated from research performed in humans and other animals. So which oral joint ingredients do have published results specifically in horses? Let’s find out.

Glucosamine & Chondroitin Sulfate

Glucosamine is an amino monosaccharide (sugar attached to the amino acid glutamine). Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), an important component of articular (joint) cartilage.

Mode of Action Both glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate help protect and provide nutrients to joints. Glucosamine is a precursor to (it transforms, chemically, into) GAGs such as chondroitin sulfate. Chondroitin sulfate gives articular cartilage resistance to compression.

Research Researchers have performed many in vitro (in the laboratory, on tissue samples) studies to better understand glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate’s mode of action at the cellular level, either alone or combined. Note that unlike in vivo studies performed on living animals, these experiments do not precisely mirror the conditions found in nature. One involved corticosteroid joint injections, which veterinarians commonly administer to promote joint health. However, some corticosteroids can inhibit proteoglycan (basically a chain of GAGs with a core protein molecule) production, negatively affecting articular cartilage. At the University of Illinois in 2008, Byron et al. found that glucosamine helped protect proteoglycan production when the cartilage was exposed to a corticosteroid.

Using articular cartilage from horse cadaver limbs in 2003, researchers at Michigan State University (MSU) found that glucosamine reduced the expression of genes for matrix metalloproteinases (enzymes responsible for cell degradation) and could help protect joint cartilage.

Another team of MSU researchers took articular cartilage from cadaver limbs and exposed it to mechanical impact to simulate a joint injury. By culturing the cartilage with a combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (GC), they concluded that GC could help mitigate some of the inflammatory response following joint trauma (Harlan et al., 2012).

Outside of the lab, Martha Rodgers, VMD, of Shephard Hill Equine, in Kentucky, followed 10 hunter/jumper and eventing horses for eight years in a published field study looking at a glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplement’s effects on hock injection frequency. Before starting on the supplement, the horses averaged 1.7 joint injections per year at 6.8-month intervals. During the six years they consumed the supplement at the manufacturer’s recommended dose, the horses’ average number of joint injections dropped to 0.85 every 9.98 months. Rodgers did note that six to eight months of consistent GC supplement use is necessary prior to seeing results. It’s also important to note that the level of evidence in this small-scale study is not as strong as that of a placebo-controlled and blinded trial.

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Vitamin A- Something Between Too Little And Too Much

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Vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin and assumes its critical role in vision, maintenance and development of healthy and younger looking skin, hair, reproduction, immunity, and mucous membranes.

Vitamin A is additionally called retinol. It might be found in any of the following forms:

  • Retinol: it is the animal form of this A vitamin
  • Different retinoids: retinoic acid, retinol, retinal, and other similar compounds
  • Carotenoids: natural colors that are normally happening in plants.

Vitamin A: daily requirement

Unit of measurement of vitamin A is RAE (Retinol Activity Equivalent). The suggested every day prerequisite for vitamin An is 700 RAE (retinol action proportional) every day for ladies and 900 RAE every day for men.

The prerequisites are varied for developing kids, during adolescence, and for ladies who are pregnant or lactating. So, it is advisable to counsel your specialist for appropriate and suggested the intake of vitamin A.

Great sources of vitamin A

Eating food that is rich in vitamin A (and carotenes) is the most ideal approach to get an adequate amount. Fit people who have a balanced eating regimen hardly require supplements. Truth be told, an excess of vitamin A can be poisonous too.

Liquor, espresso, or too much iron would all be able to drain the body’s supply of this basic vitamin. However, fortunately, vitamin A is promptly accessible from various food. Main vitamin A rich foods are:

  • Liver
  • Mango
  • Spinach
  • Cheese
  • Melon
  • Sweet potato
  • Carrots
  • Dried apricots
  • Egg yolk

Vitamin A that is obtained from animal sources can be efficiently ingested and utilized effectively by the body.

Alarming fact about vitamin A

Vitamin A can likewise produce toxicity. An excessive amount of vitamin A has been connected to expanded hazard for lung disease and birth disorders, for instance. However, before you get anxious, just go towards a simple solution to avoid any inconvenience.

Most of the whole grains and foods don’t contain vitamin A, yet beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is likewise called pre-vitamin A. Your body changes over beta-carotene into vitamin A. Beta-carotene from whole grain sources are protected.

Your body precisely limits the measure of Vitamin A you get by regulating the measure of beta-carotene it changes over into vitamin A. So, in case if you eat more beta-carotene than your body can utilize, your body just disposes of the additional.

Conversely, the vitamin A found in supplements gets put away in your fat where it can develop to undesirable levels.

What does happen if vitamin A is taken excessively?

As per some researches, having more than a normal of 1.5mg every day of vitamin A over numerous years may influence bones and make them more inclined to fractures when aged.

Aged individuals, especially ladies, are as of now in danger of osteoporosis. This is the point where the density of bone decreases thus the danger of fractures increase.

In case if you are pregnant, having a lot of vitamin A can hurt your unborn child. Thus, therefore if you are expecting or considering having a child, you ought to avoid eating liver or similar foods on the grounds that these are high in vitamin A.

You ought to likewise abstain from taking supplements that contain vitamin A. In case you have been taking a lot of vitamin A and figure you might have vitamin A cerebral pains, quit taking all vitamins supplements immediately.

Consult your specialist to be checked for any damage to organs. Drink a lot of water to help flush your accumulated toxins and poisons. You may cure your cerebral pain with over the counter pain killers as long as your specialist says it is alright.

After some time, the side effects will vanish once you stop the intake of it. At the point when all the abundance vitamin A is gone from your body, your vitamin A migraines should stop too.

Unfortunately, if there has been any liver harm from the vitamin A, consult your doctor to avoid further damage.

Dangers associated with insufficiency of vitamin A

  • Zinc is required to make RBP (retinol binding protein) which transports vitamin A in the body. Like this, a lack of zinc confines the body’s capacity to move vitamin A from the liver to body tissues.
  • Night blindness is one of the principal indications of deficiency of vitamin A.
  • Deficiency of vitamin A also lessens the capacity to battle diseases, for example, pneumonia.
  • Deficiency may build a youngster’s danger of creating respiratory diseases, improper growth, moderate bone development, diarrhea and also reduce the probability of survival from severe diseases.

Vegetarians who don’t eat eggs and dairy products require provitamin A carotenoids to address their issue for vitamin A. They ought to incorporate at least five servings of fresh veggies and fruits.

Pick dull green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow organic products to satisfy prescribed measures of vitamin A.

 

  • Vitamin A is necessary for bright and good vision

In case if you don’t get enough vitamin A in your eating routine, you won’t have the capacity to make the proteins basic for vision. Therefore, vitamin A insufficiency can prompt vision issues. Actually, overall vitamin A insufficiency is one of the main sources of visual impairment.

  • Vitamin A is key for the strength of immune system

Without vitamin A, your immunity won’t be strong enough. Indeed, even children who are mildly deficient in vitamin A become a substantially higher danger of respiratory infections and looseness of the bowels.

First of all, vitamin A appears to enable our white platelets to differentiate. These cells pick up the rank of detectives and bodyguard thanks to some degree to vitamin A.

Subsequently; you can have a more advanced interior protection force. Besides, your body creates an extraordinary molecule with vitamin A that tells these same white platelets and other cells of immunity to get dynamic.

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